Research
International trade has created a highly interdependent world. Everyday products – such as phones, trainers or cars – are designed, manufactured and assembled across several different countries, by countless different companies, both large and small, involving millions of people of all nationalities, creeds and cultures. We take much of this creativity and competition for granted. ... Continue reading
Summary The government is misleading Parliament and the public over the cost to the taxpayer of public sector pensions. This takes the form of the government reporting its pensions cost in a different way from that required by pension regulations in the private sector. A discretionary cost method of calculation is used to determine what ... Continue reading
Research
SUMMARY The Climate Change Committee was established by the Climate Change Act 2008 to advise government on climate policies, in particular with respect to carbon budgets and emissions targets for the period up to 2050. It has successfully delivered the required advice and reports and become widely respected. Governments have generally followed its advice on ... Continue reading
Research
Summary Politicians and activists seek to further limit the right to free speech by extending hate speech laws and placing new legal constraints on the speech that can be posted on social media platforms. The Online Safety Bill is now before the UK parliament and several American politicians, including President Biden and former President Trump, ... Continue reading
Research
SUMMARY Platforms are institutions that solve the problems of delivering a good or service, of clearing payments, and of creating trust between buyer and seller. In the past two decades, the physical locations in which transactions take place, such as the city market or shopping centre, have increasingly been replaced by online platforms. The platform ... Continue reading
Research
Summary The UK is incorporating the precautionary principle into domestic law. This should be balanced with an innovation principle. Innovation is vital for economic growth and prosperity. But there are widespread concerns that badly designed and targeted regulation holds back innovation, due in part to excessive restrictions brought about by misapplication of the precautionary principle. ... Continue reading
The index published in Economic Freedom of the World measures the degree to which the policies and institutions of countries are supportive of economic freedom. The cornerstones of economic freedom are personal choice, voluntary exchange, freedom to enter markets and compete, and security of the person and privately owned property. Forty-two data points are used ... Continue reading
Research
There is currently a global debate about the efficacy of vaping in reducing smoking prevalence. While the debate is ongoing, there are imminent events at which vaping will be discussed, including the WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, meeting in November (COP9). This paper explores the experience of four countries – France, the UK, New ... Continue reading
Summary Australia and the UK had very similar healthcare systems until the end of the 1940s, when they diverged. The UK created the National Health Service, while Australia opted for more gradual reforms within its existing system. We can see the Australian system as a plausible counterfactual for how healthcare in Britain might have evolved ... Continue reading