His first great insight is that people should look to themselves rather than to institutions or the state in order to prosper. “Heaven helps those who help themselves,” is possibly his best-known maxim. Memorably, he adds, “Whatever is done for men or classes, to a certain extent takes away the stimulus and necessity of doing for themselves; and where men are subjected to over-guidance and over-government, the inevitable tendency is to render them comparatively helpless.” Could Hayek have put it any better?
His second great belief is that the key to real success or achievement in life is through the dint of sheer hard work. Indeed, Smiles appears to take an almost sensuous delight in recounting the efforts and privations of those intent on achieving some great goal. Casting a wide net over history and countries, he details the efforts of the sixteenth-century French potter Bernard Palissy who for six long days and nights sat by his furnace – “pale, haggard, unshorn, baffled yet not beaten” – waiting for enamel to melt on earthenware.
In a later attempt, the poverty-stricken Palissy was reduced to smashing up his household furniture and shelving to provide fuel for his furnace before his experiment finally succeeded.
In the highest traditions of popular journalism/communication, the text of Self-Help is larded with such specific examples. We thus hear of a nineteenth-century Lord Chancellor, Lord Eldon, the son of a Newcastle coat-fitter, who began his working life with such diligence that he would rise at four every morning and study till late at night, often “…binding a wet towel round his head to keep himself awake.”
Likewise, we hear of William Harvey who spent “…no less than eight long years of investigation and research…” before publishing his views on the circulation of the blood – and had to wait another 25 years before his findings gained some grudging acceptance.
Is there too much emphasis on success in Self-Help? Smiles deals with that one too. Happily acknowledging that so often failure is the parent of later achievement, he gives the example of Disraeli who ” …did not, as many young men do, having once failed, retire dejected, to mope and whine in a corner, but diligently set himself to work. He carefully unlearnt his faults, studied the character of his audience, practised sedulously the art of speech, and industriously filled his mind with the elements of parliamentary knowledge.”
In so many ways, the strictures of Samuel Smiles appear almost prophetic in forecasting the debilitating horrors of the modern welfare state. In a world scared rigid by the current turmoil of financial meltdown, there is plenty here to fortify the nerves of those who instinctively resist a tsunami of new rules, regulations, restrictions and directives.
Indeed, in today’s bewildered, faint-heart world, it is still inspiring to read the words of Samuel Smiles. Writing at a time when our nation was beset by so many greater problems – to do with transport, housing, hunger, education, crime, poverty and disease – and with few of our technological advantages, Smiles was happy to imbue every page of his book with spirit, vigour and optimism.
Click here to download the condensed version of Self-Help by Samuel Smiles.